Volume 23 No.1, April 2016


REVIEW ARTICLE

Focused cardiac and lung ultrasonography: implications and applicability in the perioperative period

José L. Díaz-Gómez123, Gabriele Via5, Harish Ramakrishna4

1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic FL, USA
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic FL, USA
3 Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic FL, USA
4 Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic AZ, USA
5 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21454/rjaic.7518.231.lus

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Abstract

Focused ultrasonography in anesthesia (FUSA) can be a procedural and diagnostic tool, as well as potentially a tool for monitoring, and can facilitate the perioperative management of surgical patients. Its utilization is proposed within the anesthesiologist and/or intensivist scope of practice. However, there are significant barriers to more generalized use, but evidence continues to evolve that might one day make this practice a standard of care in the perioperative period.
Currently, the most widely used applications of FUSA include the guidance and characterization of perioperative shock (acute cor pulmonale, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac tamponade, and hypovolemia) and acute respiratory failure (pneumothorax, acute pulmonary edema, large pleural effusion, major atelectasis, and consolidation). Increased diagnostic accuracy of all of these clinical conditions makes FUSA valuable in the perioperative period. Furthermore, FUSA can be applied to other anesthesiology fields, such as airway management and evaluation of gastric content in surgical emergencies.

Keywords: focused cardiac ultrasound, lung ultrasound, shock, hypoxemia